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Engineering

The professionals at Bay have a full suite of geophysical methods to provide superior subsurface imaging solutions for today’s most challenging projects.

Shear Wave Seismic Reflection

Bay is a world leader in the innovative use of high resolution shear wave (S-wave) seismic reflection surveys for exploration, engineering and environmental applications.  S-wave surveys are used in non-invasive subsurface investigations requiring high resolution imaging from 4 to 400 feet beneath the ground surface.  Applications include:

  • Void and subsidence delineation
  • Fault and micro-fracture mapping
  • Channel and complex sediment deposition mapping
  • Hydrogeologic studies
  • Seismic hazards
  • Structural analysis
  • Utility locate

Since pioneering the high resolution S-wave techniques in 1990 during studies for Argonne National Laboratories and in conjunction with the Earth Sciences Research Institute, Bay has acquired and interpreted over one thousand miles of S-wave seismic data.

2-D and 3-D Seismic Reflection

Bay specializes in seismic reflection techniques for mapping structures, faults, lithology, reservoirs and mineral deposits.  Bay’s extensive acquisition of high resolution seismic data, combined with out experience, and a full suite of standard and experimental seismic sources, has provided us with the knowledge necessary to help you design your survey with the acquisition parameters required to image the subsurface environment at your site location.  Learn More

2-D and 3-D seismic reflection case study

Resistivity and Induced Polarization

2-D and 3-D resistivity surveys are designed with site-specific parameters to provide the best subsurface imaging possible.  The state of the art multichannel resistivity system that Bay employs is faster and more powerful than single channel systems and is capable of conducting large 3-D surveys with thousands of electrode stations and is a lower cost alternative to seismic reflection.  Applications include:

  • Void and karst topography mapping
  • Subsidence investigation
  • Bedrock and stratigraphy mapping
  • Fault and fracture delineation
  • Hydrogeologic studies
  • Mineral exploration

Induced Polarization (IP) surveys can be performed concurrently with resistivity surveys.  IP is a time domain method that makes use of the capacitive action of the subsurface to:

  • Map clays
  • Delineate contaminated soils (LNAPL, DNAPL, etc.)
  • Map landfill boundaries

3-D resistivity case study

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